Signs of Life

Change Emerging

Terry Tempest Williams’ Wild Joy (Despite the Tar Sands Pit in Her Backyard)

Terry Tempest Williams lives with her husband in Utah, but I met her in Vermont, near Dartmouth College, where she teaches part of each year. The lush foliage of a damp New England spring is nothing like the desert terrain she grew up with, she told me when we sat down together during my brief visit last May. She relishes the many species of trees, birds, and plants, but sometimes all the green makes her feel closed in, and she yearns for the dry, open country of home.

Sarah van Gelder is co-founder and editor at large for YES! Magazine.

It’s her deep connection to place and to wilderness that Williams is known for. Her books celebrate the prairie dog, migratory birds, and the natural history of the Utah desert. But she also writes about her Mormon faith, about the cancer that took the lives of her mother, brother, grandmother, and other members of her extended family — and about her belief that above-ground nuclear testing is to blame.

What I See

Willaims and baby

Terry Tempest Williams, right, with baby.

Williams photographed the world around her while teaching “The Ecology of Residency” this summer in Centennial Valley, Montana, near the Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge. The class is part of the University of Utah’s Environmental Humanities Graduate Program. “It is what I am most passionate about,” she said, “teaching, writing, listening, being — in place.”

Williams’ writing is enriched by a practice she mentioned several times in our conversation: “ground truthing.” She doesn’t settle for secondhand accounts. She insists on being a witness. She meets those devastated by the Rwanda genocide and by the oil spill catastrophe on the Gulf Coast. She joins the long-term protest blocking the Utah tar sands mine in a remote part of her state, supporting the young people’s encampment. She seeks out a firsthand connection with the wild too: She knows the flock of meadowlarks living near her home well enough to distinguish each bird by the slight variations in its markings.

These intimate encounters invite readers into the joy and pain of life in a deeply troubled world.

Sarah van Gelder: When you come here to Dartmouth to teach, what do you tell your students about where we are, what this moment is about?

Terry Tempest Williams: I don’t tell them anything. I listen. I’m so moved by this generation: how wise they are, how open they are, how curious they are, and in many instances, how broken they are.

This generation doesn’t have illusions. They’re interested in source, be it in growing their own foods or issues of sustainability. They’re well-traveled, and yet I think many of them are now cleaving closer to home, figuring out where to take root. And maybe I just lied, Sarah. I do say one thing. Their question is always, “So what do we do?” And for me, it’s not “What can we do?” but “Who are we becoming?”

van Gelder: What do you tell yourself about what it means to be alive at this particular moment?

Williams: I was reading Ed Hirsch’s book A Poet’s Glossary. I think we’re in a “poetic crossing.” Can I read you his definition?


van Gelder: Sure.

Williams: He says a poetic crossing is: “The movement within a poem from one plane of reality to another, as when Dante crosses over from the earthly realm to the infernal regions in The Inferno. A poetic crossing, which follows the arc from physical motion to spiritual action, requires the blacking out of the quotidian world and the entrance into another type of consciousness, a more heightened reality. It is a move beyond the temporal, a visionary passage.”

I feel like that’s where we are. I think there are so many of us, certainly yourself at the helm, who are recognizing this as a transitional moment. But to think about it as a poetic crossing, that speaks to my soul. We’re moving from one plane of reality to another, and what is required of us is spiritual.

van Gelder: Do you find that having a conversation that gets to the spiritual core is difficult when religion is such a fraught and divisive arena?

Williams: It’s such a great question, Sarah. I don’t view it as religious. I think the fact that religious institutions are taking on climate change as a moral issue is great news. I love that we have a pope who is coming forth with an encyclical about climate change, and I love that we have His All Holiness the Patriarch Bartholomew I [of the Eastern Orthodox Church], who said, “A sin against the Earth is a sin against God.”

But personally, it becomes a spiritual issue, and I absolutely have no answers. I just know what it feels like to stand in the vitality of the struggle, which is a phrase that I have adopted from Gertrude Stein.


van Gelder: What does it feel like?

Williams: That we know nothing. That the world is completely shifting under our feet, that it’s sand instead of bedrock.

I’m so aware of my own complicity in these issues, my own hypocrisy, and yet I see the choices that we’re given. On one hand, I’m fighting against oil shale development in the Colorado Plateau and tar sands mining in the Book Cliffs, one of the wildest places in the lower 48. And yet, as my critics say, I’m on planes talking about how important home is — and I’m away from home!

van Gelder: Recently you’ve been talking about the tar sands protests in Utah, and I have to say, I didn’t know this was happening until I heard it from you.

Williams: You know, Sarah, you are not alone. Most people don’t know about this. There’s been so much attention focused on the Alberta tar sands and the Keystone XL pipeline, as there should be. But meanwhile, we have a tar sands mine in the United States — in the state of Utah, in the Book Cliffs. That is terrifying. It’s in wild country with wild horses and huge elk herds and mountain lions — it’s in the heart of America’s red rock wilderness. And the state of Utah is moving toward a vote to expand the mine.


It takes about five hours to get up there on a very precarious road. You get up to the top where the tar sands mine operation is, and you are met by a superhighway! You can’t believe it. It’s a four-lane, paved freeway that the county commissioners want to call the “National Parks Highway.” They paved that road so that it could be a direct line from the tar sands down to Vernal, which is one of the largest sites of natural gas development in the country, then on the other side, a direct byway down to Moab. From their point of view, it’s a paved highway from Dinosaur National Monument to Arches National Park.

van Gelder: Tell me about the protest encampment. Have you visited?

Williams: I have. Activists from Utah Tar Sands Resistance and Peaceful Uprising have created a permanent protest vigil at PR Springs, now known as the Colorado Plateau Defense Camp, located directly across from the mine. Activists have been arrested repeatedly. It began in 2013 with a small group of brave and committed young people, and I honor and admire what they’re doing. The resistance is growing with leadership from the Living Rivers Alliance, led by John Weisheit, a former river guide on the Colorado River, who has filed a lawsuit against U.S. Oil Sands, the Canadian company behind the operation. Water is a primary issue. It makes no sense on multiple levels, from carbon emissions to the drought conditions we are facing now. And, of course, the moral issue of climate change.


It’s really terrifying. It’s really hidden, and there is an immense barbed wire fence surrounding the mine, and it looks like a prison. But when you go around the side road — my family are great hunters, so I know the back roads — you look up there, and it’s unbelievable the land that has already been removed. And I think, “This is in my own home ground, and I hadn’t known about it.”

My father, who understands this industry, is saying it’ll never happen because the water usage is so immense, we are in drought, and the price of oil has dropped. But if you look at the road and what they’ve already done — millions of dollars already spent — U.S. Oil Sands and Utah politicians are banking on remoteness and that nobody cares, and so far that’s borne out.

And it comes back to this: Have I had eye contact with another species today? Be it a chickadee or a praying mantis in the garden or our dog? Or each other?” —Terry Tempest Williams

van Gelder: Does this issue cut differently across the right-left spectrum in the Southwest than some other places?

Williams: I’m going to say that it does. My father is as conservative as you can get, and he says the oil companies have gone too far. He’s saying that tar sands mining is not the answer. And he is a very strong advocate, believe it or not, for climate justice.

My dad had had a chronic cough, and he went to see his doctor, who said, “Mr. Tempest, your cough is a result of climate change.” [laughter]


My father calls and goes, “Terry, are you sitting down? You will not believe this. I am a victim of climate change!” And I thought, “Who is this doctor? I want to kiss his hand!”

The point is it became deeply personal. My father went to hear James Balog, and he saw the film Chasing Ice with the time-lapse photography showing the glaciers recede. My father’s own experience going up to Glacier National Park for decades bears that truth, also.

So he calls up all of his Mormon study group, and he hosts a special screening of Chasing Ice in his nephew’s basement. Dad led the discussion saying that climate change is human-caused, and we have to get off our duffs and start talking about these issues. And, you know, these were senior people within the Mormon community: attorneys, doctors, contractors, the full gamut. It was a beautiful thing to see.

So does it cross conservative-liberal lines? I think it does because it becomes a human issue. And that’s where I stake my hope. If I’m seeing change within my own family, then change is occurring.


van Gelder: Obama just made a decision to allow offshore drilling in the Arctic. Why do you believe he made that decision?

Williams: It just feels like a case of political schizophrenia. On one hand, he’s saying he wants to protect the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, the coastal plain. Two, three months later he’s giving the OK for Shell to drill in the Arctic Ocean.

So why is Obama doing this? I think the simple answer is money, corporate control. We in this nation view corporations as individuals, and yet we as individuals do not have the same voice and privilege that the corporations do.

I loved Rebecca Solnit’s line, “Privilege is a landscape as level as the Andes.” And I think, for the most part, all of our presidents are dealing in privileged landscapes, not vulnerable ones.

I think it comes down to direct action. That’s why I applaud what’s happening all over the country — whether it’s the Utah Tar Sands Resistance or the kayak activists in Seattle or the activists in West Virginia with mountaintop removal or the two activists in a tiny lobster boat who blocked a freighter carrying a load of 40,000 tons of coal heading for a power plant near an industrial inlet between Massachusetts and Rhode Island. We’re seeing direct action everywhere. I think it’s a beautiful thing, and I think we’re only going to see more of this kind of political engagement because our lives are at stake, our planet is at stake, and the people in power refuse to acknowledge this. This is the open space of democracy.

an Gelder: Yeah, I was thinking about how there are so many ways in which people are not that unlike other animals, and yet we’re so much more powerful.

Williams: Are we?


van Gelder: We’ve changed the Earth to fit our animal desires for stuff. Right? I mean, it’s not that different than your dog deciding he wants to eat too much. We have that same animal notion of getting and hoarding, and we have the power to turn the entire planet over to that enterprise. Now do we have that next layer of wisdom to know when not to do those things? It seems like almost a test for us as a species.

Williams: And what would it look like if we were to pass that test?

van Gelder: It would be a lot of humility, a lot of discernment. Finding joy and satisfaction from things that are not material. And then being willing to make the sacrifices it takes to insist on a different kind of a world, even when some powerful interests want to keep the old one intact so that they can continue to benefit.

Williams: You know, I think about those words that you’re bringing to the conversation: humility, discernment, sacrifice. I think it circles back to the notion that survival, now, becomes a spiritual practice. And that’s where I find my calm returning. That’s where I return to the place where my voice deepens, and I’m no longer residing in the hysteria of politics. That’s where my grounding is.

And it comes back to this: Have I had eye contact with another species today? Be it a chickadee or a praying mantis in the garden or our dog? Or each other?

And I think it also has to do with slowing down so we can listen and hear and remember who we are and who we are not.

Do we have the stamina to not walk away, to stay in this hard place of transformation? I think we do. And to me, that’s evolution.” —Terry Tempest Williams


van Gelder: It seems to me that some of your writing could be described as channeling the world’s pain. Your willingness to witness and be openhearted in your witness and then to struggle to find the words — I’m wondering if that exhausts you.

Williams: Am I tired of Orrin Hatch? Yes. [laughter] Am I tired of Utah politics? Always. But am I tired of listening to people’s stories about hard things? No, because I believe this is where we share that burden, which is ultimately a blessing. Becky Duet, one of the women that I met during my time down in the Gulf — her story breaks your heart. She lost everything as a result of the oil spill. She lost her business. She lost her health. She lost her community.

I go down. I do a story. I return home. My perception changes, but my life doesn’t. Becky lives there. She stays. It’s her home, her family, her life. Every day, she struggles to even stay upright, and yet she’s still speaking out. That’s courage and commitment with a cost.

It’s so humbling to have her as a friend. Is it a burden? No. Do I get tired? How can you say you’re tired? We’re so privileged. Am I tired of cancer in my family? Yes. Is it heartbreaking? It never leaves you, and it’s all around us. But that’s life, and that’s death, and that’s real. And I want what’s real.

It’s here

Tar sands

Test pit for the first commercial fuel-producing tar sands mine in the U.S. at East Tavaputs Plateau, Utah.

So much attention has been given to Canadian tar sands activity that the public has largely overlooked what’s happening in the United States. The Alberta-based company U.S. Oil Sands started building infrastructure last year in Utah. Mining is expected to begin this fall. Elsewhere, Alabama and Kentucky are discussing similar operations.

A ways off, a group of activists and volunteers called the Utah Tar Sands Resistance has set up a permanent protest encampment, equipped with a well-stocked kitchen and sheltered by tarps. “The risks to our climate and health far outweigh the potential gains for corporate profiteers, who have no right to jeopardize our future for their own short-term profits,” says protestor Melanie Martin. Organizers claim U.S. Oil Sands’ share values have fluctuated coincident with resistance efforts. Regardless, mining operations continue. — Alexa Strabuk

van Gelder: I just read the letter you wrote from the climate march last fall. You sounded so happy!

Williams: There has to be joy, right? People think, “Oh, this is so dire.” It is dire. But there has to be joy. There has to be humor. There has to be friendship. There has to be what I call spiritual and emotional muscularity. And that was apparent everywhere at the march.

I love the haiku from Issa: “Insects on a bough, floating downriver, still singing.” I feel like that’s me. All of us. Yes, it’s serious. It’s deadly serious. But we’re still alive! And there is so much beauty that surrounds us. We live in a singing world from crickets to whales to yellow-rumped warblers. We can’t forget this, or we will forget what it means to fully be alive.

van Gelder: What’s next for you?

Williams: I don’t know. I rarely have a plan. I just want to pay attention and follow my nose. I can tell you that I’m writing about national parks. I thought this would be an easy book, that it would be joyous and celebratory. But as I started peeling the layers, I realized, “This, too, is a shadowed landscape.” This is about displaced people. This is about racism. This is about choosing what species die and what species remain. Our national parks have used the heavy hand of privilege to protect some of our most beautiful, wild, iconic places from Yosemite to Yellowstone to Acadia National Park.

What I’m coming to realize is that this book is about how America’s national parks mirror America itself in both shadow and light. Our national parks are breathing spaces at a time when we as a nation are holding our breath. Why else do close to 300 million people a year flock to them?

So how do you celebrate what remains with an acknowledgement of the crimes that were committed? I don’t know.


Take Glacier National Park, as an example. In the next 15 years, scientists predict there will be no glaciers in a park that is named after them. This land, Blackfeet Nation’s land, was taken. Today, the Blackfeet are in a lawsuit with the government over co-governance, and they will win. At the visitor’s center, the flag of the Blackfeet Nation flies alongside Old Glory. So here’s a park that abused the Blackfeet, stole their land, and named it after glaciers, and now its very identity is being turned inside out.

I think this is where we are. We’re in this time where everything is being turned inside out, including us. Do we have the stamina to not walk away, to stay in this hard place of transformation? I think we do. And to me, that’s evolution. I can’t imagine being alive at a more thrilling, challenging time where what is called for is acts of imagination, direct action, and stillness.

Sarah van Gelder is co-founder and editor at large for YES! Magazine.

People We Love

When Gamers and Activists Collide

Gloria O’Neill

Gloria O’Neill

Telling Native Legends Through the Digital Sphere

Video game Never Alone

The video game Never Alone is based on the Iñupiat legend of Kunuuksaayuka. Art for the characters and environments was inspired by real people and traditional Alaska Native art.

Alaska Native Gloria O’Neill partnered with an educational game developer to create Never Alone, a video game where the gamer plays as Nuna, an Iñupiaq girl, solving puzzles and learning about Alaska Native culture and legends.

Upper One Games, a product of this collaboration, is the United States’ first Native-owned videogame developer. O’Neill oversaw production to ensure Native values were properly represented in the game, but notes it was a team effort, from chief financial officer Amy Fredeen to creative director Sean Vesce and the many Iñupiat storytellers who breathed life into the narrative.

The game places Nuna and her fox companion, both playable characters, on a coming-of-age journey against the harsh arctic terrain, occasionally helped along by wayfaring Natives and wispy white spirits. Players mark achievements by obtaining “Cultural Insights,” including real-life interviews with Alaska Natives and animations of Iñupiat myths and legends.

Many of those legends are, after all, the same stories O’Neill heard growing up. She hopes the game has helped break ground on a genre of educational, culture-specific world games. “It seems people are really hungry for this,” O’Neill says. “They’re hungry to engage using technology and to learn about cultures around the world.”

Gloria O’Neill

Colleen Macklin

Educating on the Playful Side of Activism

Video game Never Alone

Colleen Macklin’s The Metagame is a card game that makes you rethink popular culture.

At 9 years old, Colleen Macklin was designing her own video games about marine biology and dinosaurs, complete with Jacques Cousteau-like characters. Now, as a college professor and professional game developer, she is working to pass that childhood hobby on to the next generation of game designers.

Macklin co-directs PETLab, a laboratory at the New School’s Parsons School of Design in New York City that allows students and professors to collaborate on educational games to encourage social engagement. These include the interactive mobile game Re:Activism, which maps out a history of social movements as users roam the streets of major cities.

Macklin also takes a social justice angle in designing real-life games. PETLab’s Budgetball teaches students about the national debt. Games for a New Climate playfully teaches disaster preparedness in the face of climate change. Two of the lab’s projects even teach children to program their own video games.

Macklin’s many other projects with the lab — as well as the culture-focused games of Local No. 12, a small collective of college professors, and Macklin’s creative outlet — bridge a gap between advocacy and play. “We’re not trying to talk about facts,” she says, “but to model how activism works.”

Gloria O’Neill

Paolo Pedercini

Defeating the Status Quo One Game at a Time

Video game Never Alone

To Build a Better Mousetrap, Paolo Pedercini’s most recent game on Molleindustria, simulates worker exploitation.

Paolo Pedercini was an activist and a punk band member before he tapped into the world of game design. In the early 2000s, he discovered that games could be used to express his rebellious thoughts on the world.

Pedercini is the brains behind Molleindustria, a game collective whose online games dig into the ugly side of major social and political conversations. He says his games are meant to wake people up to the ironies of mainstream culture and the absurdity of capitalist structures.

“You are not only using your little game to say something, but using this little game to highlight what the other games are not saying,” he says. “It’s never just about saying certain things or envisioning certain kinds of worlds, but it is about deconstructing the language of power.”

Some of his more than two dozen games — like the anti-corporate McDonald’s Videogame or the fossil fuel industry simulator Oiligarchy — highlight the lunacy of modern industry. Others reveal a new social potential in video games. Phone Story, a mobile game depicting the unjust labor practices required for the production of smartphones, was banned from the iTunes App Store hours after its official announcement — demonstrating the power of games to turn a culture on its head.


We Can All Whip Up Some Homemade Freedom

I have not forgotten Bree Newsome. I will never forget her. She climbed up the flagpole at the South Carolina Statehouse in June and took down the Confederate flag. Following the murder of nine people in a Charleston church, I was unable to write anything that wasn’t full of bitterness and despair. But Newsome refused to allow the body of one of the dead, State Sen. Clementa Pinckney, to lie in state under the flag his murderer used as an emblem of hate-filled values. Across the country, her actions set hearts and imaginations on fire. Months later, we can still learn a lot from that day.

Mistinguette Smith

Mistinguette Smith is the founding director of The Black/Land Project. She consults with organizations about how to make effective social change. Smith’s essays have appeared in literary and academic publications.

In the days after her action, Newsome was depicted as a heroine, a black Superwoman, a symbol of how we can act when Black Lives Matter. But it’s important to remember that Newsome is not a superhero. Her actions remind us that the change we want to see in the world will not come from some super power; it will come from people power. And if we can figure out how to grow our own vegetables and make our own bread, we have enough power to make ourselves some homemade freedom. We already have everything that we need.

Here are a few elements I can identify in Newsome’s recipe for homemade freedom:

Stay woke. Newsome’s actions were a response to Gov. Nikki Haley’s unfulfilled promise to remove the Confederate flag from the South Carolina State House. Instead of shutting down in her grief and rage, Newsome stayed awake to Haley’s inaction, and she stayed present to her own feelings. Anger is the appropriate feeling to have when our boundaries have been violated. Newsome reminds us that the purpose of anger is to generate the energy we need for self-protective action.

Get up early. The sunrise behind Newsome’s descent down the flagpole was not simply photogenic. It also reminds us to take action for change at the earliest opportunity. This prevents us from feeling powerless and shamed as we watch injustice pile upon injustice over time. It also doesn’t hurt to spread our message in time for the morning news cycle!

Deeds, not pleas, bring change. It is important that we advocate for policy, sign petitions, and take part in protests that put our bodies on the line. But asking for freedom is not the same as taking action as a free people. Frederick Douglass reminds us not only that “power concedes nothing without a demand,” but also that “if we ever get free from the oppressions and wrongs heaped upon us, we must pay for their removal. We must do this by [our] labor.”

Use what you have. Newsome did not have wealth or a communications team or a political platform. She did have a helmet, a pair of boots, and enough climbing knowledge to scale a 30-foot pole. With these three things, Newsome brought down the Confederate flag at the State House. Her action also brought that flag down from the shelves of stores and removed it from products and television shows.

Speak the language you know. Sometimes we think our acts of conscience will not matter if we don’t know what to say or lack the gift of oration that moves people. Our own words are good enough. Before her arrest, Newsome made a statement that was simple and clear: “We removed the flag today because we can’t wait any longer. We can’t continue like this another day.”

To go far, go together. A South African proverb says: “If you want to go fast, go alone. If you want to go far, go together.” Newsome was arrested with a support partner on the ground, a white man named James Tyson. Working together across identities of privilege invites in many resources, including the strength that comes from the reminder that we are dreaming and longing and working together for all of us to be free.

The Confederate flag was up again within an hour of Newsome and Tyson’s arrest. But their action has had lasting impact. We should never forget that we can claim some homemade freedom whenever we remember that we are enough, and we already have enough. Like all homemade things, freedom requires creativity, a little skill, and a daily dose of courage. Most of all, it requires us to share our stories of homemade freedom with each other.

Mistinguette Smith

Mistinguette Smith is the founding director of The Black/Land Project. She consults with organizations about how to make effective social change. Smith’s essays have appeared in literary and academic publications.

The Page That Counts

The Numbers That Define Our World

Total cost of Social Security in 2013 $823 billion

Total income of Social Security in 2013 $855 billion

Current accumulated surplus reserve of Social Security $2.8 trillion 1

Percentage of first-year college students who identified as having no religious preference, 1980–84 8

Percentage of first-year college students who identified as having no religious preference, 2010–14 25 2

Percentage of current U.S. congressmembers identifying as Christian 91.8

Number of congressmembers identifying as having no religious preference 13

Economic activity of commercial space transportation companies, 1999 $61,313,711

Economic activity of commercial space transportation companies, 2009 $208,329,012 4

Debt in Greece as a percentage of GDP 174.0

Debt per capita in Greece $38,444

Debt in the United States as a percentage of GDP 107.3

Debt per capita in the United States $58,604 5

Typical gigabytes of hard drive storage in a modern personal computer 500

Total gigabytes of hard drive storage in the U.S. control computers aboard the International Space Station 1.5 6

Percentage of children’s books written about characters of color, 1999 6

Percentage of children’s books written about characters of color, 2014 11 7

Estimated percentage of U.S. children who are of color, 2014 48.2 8

Number of Chickasaw language speakers in the 1960s 3,000+

Number of Chickasaw language speakers in 2014 65 9

Cumulative capacity of world wind power in 2010 200 gigawatts

Cumulative capacity of world wind power in 2014 370 gigawatts

Projected percentage of Europe’s electricity that will be generated from wind power by 2020 At least 12 10

Percentage of Denmark’s electricity needs generated by wind turbines on a particularly windy day in July 2015 140 11

Average holding period for a stock in 1945 4 years

Average holding period for a stock in 2000 2 months

Average holding period for a stock in 2011 22 seconds 12

Number of U.S. viewers of 2015 Women’s World Cup (most for any soccer match in American history) 26.7 million 13

Prize money awarded by FIFA to U.S. women’s team after 2015 World Cup victory $2 million 14

Prize money awarded by FIFA to U.S. men’s team after 2014 World Cup elimination $8 million 15

Number of World Cups won by U.S. women’s team 3

Number of World Cups won by U.S. men’s team 0

Complete citations at

1. Altman, N.J. (2015) Social Security Works!, New York, N.Y.: The New Press. 2. Twenge et al., Generational and Time Period Differences in American Adolescents’ Religious Orientation, 1966-2014, May 2015. 3. Pew Research Center, Jan. 2015. 4. Federal Aviation Administration,The Economic Impact of Commercial Space Transportation on the U.S. Economy in 2009, Sept. 2010. 5. Bloomberg Business, Feb. 2014. 6. NASA, July 2015. 7. Cooperative Children’s Book Center, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Feb. 2015. 8. Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, America’s Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being, 2015. 9. International Business Times, May 2014. 10. European Commission Joint Research Centre, 2014 JRC Wind Status Report, June 2015. 11. The Guardian, July 2015. 12. Patterson, S. (2013) Dark Pools: The Rise of the Machine Traders and the Rigging of the U.S. Stock Market, New York, N.Y.: Crown Business. 13. ESPN, July 2015. 14. BBC, Dec. 2014.15. Reuters, Dec. 2013.